The Nix film is on record too. [His secretary] Lillian remembered that "Everybody was going nuts, turning on the television. Removal of too many frames on that film would be noticeable. ( 22 H 662 ) I think people remember when they are struck in the back with a bullet that knocks them forward, and that memory is confirmed on film. everybody was laying flat on the ground almost. The effects of the visual image on society will be debated ad nauseum (curiously, some critics would later credit Zapruder's film in particular with giving a bit of ultraviolence and verite . In the Nix film, Jackie goes noticeably further out on the trunk. That would have required starting with the wound and ending up with no wound. "I saw his head open up and I started yelling, 'They killed him! The film is simply a badly distorted film which does not show the assassination. [35] Brugioni then stated the Zapruder film in the National Archives today, and available to the public, specifically frame 313, is an altered version of the film he saw and worked with on November 2324, the earlier of the two versions handled by the NPIC. (The original was never returned to the Nix family; it was lost.) But that film at least as far as Jackies escapade on the trunk is concerned seems less edited than the Zapruder film. There is no question that the Zapruder film. Taylor Swift took to social media to assure fans her hand was doing fine after she suffered what looked like a painful off-stage injury in Houston. Gil Jesus has created a simple simulation to show the effect of frame removal. Films and photographs are hardly an inviolable form of evidence, as is acknowledged in what many consider the bible on evidence, McCormick on Evidence, 3rd Ed., Edited by Edward W. Cleary, West Publishing Co., St. Paul, MN, 1984. I'm thinking an independent team of nominal Secret Service agents (actually CIA?) Only one person filmed from start to finish the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, which occurred in a matter of seconds at 12:30 p.m. on Nov. 22, 1963 on Elm Street in Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas, TX. James Norwood, a retired professor of Humanities, University of Minnesota, was perhaps the first to point out what seems to be a definitive discrepancy: In the Zapruder film of the assassination, Jackie goes only just beyond the middle of the trunk before retreating. But then suddenly Governor Connally was yelling . Marina's role in what happened in Dallas rested primarily on the results of scientific analysis. Abe Zapruder had no idea when he took his 8-millimeter camera down to Dealey Plaza on November 22, 1963 that he would record President Kennedy's assassination. BREHM said when the President was hit by the second shot he could notice the Presidents hair fly up and then [he] roll[ed] over to his side Brehm said that a third shot followed between the first and third shots, the Presidents car only seemed to move some 10 or 12 feet almost came to a halt after the first shot [FBI statement]. This is crudely done since I am not a film editor. Under those circumstances, those responsible for the editing of the original Zapruder film ( CIA ) would have been FORCED to retain the headshot frames. The Zapruder film, the only continuous chronological visual record of the assassination, is the best available photographic evidence of the number and timing of the shots that struck the occupants of the Presidential limousine. From those slides, the FBI made a series of black-and-white prints, which were given to the commission for its use. So anyway, he walked in, and he handed me the camera. I didn't realize what had happened," Abe remembered. "Life To Release Today Part of Kennedy Film", JFK Assassination Zapruder Stabilized Motion Panorama HD plus SloMo 50th anniversary, JFK Assassination Stabilized Motion Panorama HD Nix v Zapruder 50th anniversary (HD), National Archives and Records Administration, President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act, Learn how and when to remove this template message, National Photographic Interpretation Center, List of photographs considered the most important, "The Other Shooter: The Saddest and Most Expensive 26 Seconds of Amateur Film Ever Made", "Kennedy's Assassination: How LIFE Brought the Zapruder Film to Light", "World's Oldest Cub Reporter: Hewitt's Half Century at CBS", Warren Commission Hearings and Exhibits, Vol. It is one of the most studied pieces of film in history. He also met with a representative from Life Magazine and agreed to sell all rights to the footage for the sum of $150,000. [10][12], Brugioni thought the Zapruder Film in the National Archives today, and available to the public, has been altered from the version of the film he saw and worked with on November 2324. We KNOW the Muchmore film has an anomaly at Z312-313. I recorded my index finger ( simulating the movement of the limousine ) from left to right. the biggest tragedy is that another version exists which none of us have seen. It is a difficult film to look at and doesnt really show that much. Alexandra Zapruder recalled that fact in "Twenty-Six Seconds: A Personal History of the Zapruder Film," saying that her grandfather had been making home films of just about everything for decades from the 1930s onward.The interest had initially started with still photos ones of . There is another, more sinister explanation for the confusion and discrepancies when it comes to the number and location of shots. All Rights Reserved. The other day I was trying to make sense of some strange discrepancies in what a Secret Service agent said about what he saw when President John F. Kennedy was shot. here's some more photos showing the contact. PLEASE CLICK ON THIS TITLE FOR INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR REGISTRATION!. In this essay, Cranor asks readers to consider whether there is a significant discrepancy between the Nix and Zapruder films of the assassination, and if this indicates tampering. Erin Blakemore is a journalist from Boulder, Colorado. But, writes Nalli, his model is unique in that it focuses on the forward motion of the presidents head after he was shot. This, he hypothesized, meant the president had been shot from behind. The version of the Zapruder film available to the public depicts the fatal head shot on only one frame of the film, frame 313. Frame 153 from the Zapruder film. But a film can also be altered by simply deleting frames. Plagued by nightmares of the films gruesome content, Zapruder only allowed the magazine to publish photos of the assassination footage on the condition that it remove frame 313the moment in which Kennedy is shot in the head. On November 29, 1963, President Lyndon Johnson directed the Warren Commission to . After "Gimme Shelter" appeared, critic Pauline Kael compared it to the Zapruder film. The second one had almost a double sound as though you were standing against something metal and firing into it, and you hear both the sound of a gun going off and the sound of the cartridge hitting the metal place. Acoustic guitar. Also, if pains were taken to set up alternate photographers shooting from Zapruder's POV, then there would already be a plan as to where to do the composite work after the film(s) left Dallas. Although it is not the only film of the shooting, the Zapruder film has been described as being . I believe that this proves that this frame is a composite frame, the top half from one frame and the bottom half of another. I proved that. I have 108+ witnesses who said that shooting occurred differently and mainly in the intersection of Elm and Houston and in front of the TSBD. After it was shown on National TV in 1975 Life magazine sold it back to the Zapruder family for $1.00. I proved that. 6, 1975, when a bootleg copy of the film was broadcast on nationwide TV on ABCs Goodnight America show, hosted by Geraldo Rivera. By 161 ). The court held that "there is a public interest in having the fullest information available on the murder of President Kennedy, saying that Thompson "did serious work on the subject and has a theory entitled to public consideration" and that "the copying by defendants was fair and reasonable. In that way, the film alteration mirrors the body alteration, perhaps not just metaphorically but physically - down to the bloody "flap" appearing on the right side of the head, unseen at Parkland but visible in the Zapruder composite and the autopsy photos suspected of being retouched to elide the rear blowout. Chart from Military Armament Corporation. NARA may make a single fair-use copy of the film and sell it to any researcher. [27], Every frame of the Zapruder film has been put together into a panoramic movie. The vagaries of eyewitness testimony are well known. This directly contradicts the Zapruder Film and others that show much the same imagery. However, I dont believe that is the case. I guess it's all in what you choose to believe. Learn more about Erin and her work at Abraham Zapruder stood on a concrete pedestal along Elm Street in Dealey Plaza holding a Model 414 PD Bell & Howell Zoomatic Director Series Camera. "The Zapruder film shows President Kennedy being shot from behind and not from the infamous grassy knoll, in corroboration of the official autopsy findings," says Nalli in a release. ", Zapruder insisted that frame 313 be excluded from publication. However, what if there were a large number of people saying something. Reymond also claimed that he had seen the version through a friend of his who was a member of a right wing group in France called ETEC. Have you ever wondered why no one on Houston Street or on Elm Street, except Abe Zapruder, filmed the p. limo from the passenger side? Garrison unsuccessfully subpoenaed the original film in 1968. The President and Mrs. Kennedy shared a limousine with Texas Governor John Connally and his wife Nellie. "Some people were screaming," she said. Life brought the original to Washington in February for the Commission's viewing, and also made color 35mm slide enlargements from the relevant frames of the original film for the FBI. Volume 18 of the commission's hearings reproduced 158 frames from the Zapruder film in black and white. After creating the required duplicate negatives from the desired frames, the film was returned the two members of the Secret Service, and that at approximately 3 AM they left the NPIC facility. She has also co-authored numerous peer-reviewed articles for medical journals. John Costella said the film was technically perfect except for small, technical changes in the film. Whereas witness reports can be in error.. Apparently the team that worked on the second examination was given 16mm film and made up another, and possibly larger, series of frame prints, and that another set of briefing boards was also created. The 1963 Zapruder film, taken by Abraham Zapruder, is derived from the six-foot strip of celluloid contained in the U.S. National Archives, scientifically pr. Some years ago, the late JFK researcher/author Jim Marrs interviewed a man named William Reymond, a JFK author/researcher from France who claimed to have seen another version of the Zapruder film. Orville Nix was filming the motorcade from the plaza on the south side of Elm St., on the opposite side of the limo from Zapruder. The shocking revelation of Kennedy's head going backward and to the left resulted in a public outcry so great that Congress created the House Select Committee on Assassinations two years later. The problem is not . [40], Some critics have stated that the violence and shock of this home movie led to a new way of representing violence in 1970s American cinema, both in mainstream films, and particularly in indie and underground horror movies.[41][42]. Z-381, Z-382, Z-383, Z-384, Z-385, Z-386, Z-387, Z-388, Z-389, Z-390, Z-391, Z-392, Z-393, Z-394, Z-395, Z-396. That person was a 58-year old Dallas dress manufacturer, Abraham Zapruder, who died in 1970. The extant Zapruder film is missing frames 208-211. No. I believe more than we know. For instance, On November 24, 1963, while Lee Harvey Oswald was being moved from a detention cell to an interrogation room . The right rear portion of his head was missing. Below, he seems to be describing the effects of two bullets fired nearly simultaneously, one of which he thought was a near miss, disturbing only JFKs hair. . 20 frames from the time Webb hit the dirt, until AC made contact. Sitzman said that,"He ( Zapruder ) started filming.just before they came around the corner.". "[31], The evidence offered by Holland and Rush to support their theory was challenged in a series of 200708 articles by computer animator Dale K. Myers and assassination researcher Todd W. Vaughan, who defended the prevailing belief that Zapruder's film captured the entire shooting sequence. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. Neither ever brought it up. The Truth Behind JFK's Assassination. We strive for accuracy and fairness. But we know from all the films that JFK was shot in the head almost immediately after Hill got off the running board of the follow-up car. As you will see from what follows, this is a crucial question. The courtroom showings of Garrison's copy in 1969 were the first time it had been shown in public as a film. What do you do with that? [30] Holland and Rush have pointed out that Zapruder temporarily stopped filming at around frame 132, when only police motorcycles were visible. I. especially clear copy of Zapruder frame #375, frames from the copy of his film are missing, shooting a revolver into a hard object it seemed to have some type of an echo, Between the time I originally grabbed the handhold and until I was up on the car the second noise that I heard had removed a portion of the Presidents head, reaching for something coming off the right rear bumper of the car, the right rear tail, when I mounted the car it was it had a different sound, as though you were standing against something metal and firing into it, and you hear both the sound of a gun going off and the sound of the cartridge hitting the metal place, The right rear portion of his head was missing, Emmett Hudson, Dealey Plaza groundskeeper, Associated Press photographer James W. Altgens. [7], The Zapruder film frames that were used by the Warren Commission were published in black and white as Commission Exhibit 885 in volume XVIII of the Hearings and Exhibits. Once in the hands of the Gov't/Media it was Secreted away for over a dozen years and it's contents Lied about by Gov't/Media. Before looking at stills from these rather fuzzy films, you may want to see a good clear picture of the trunk, and the reference points that help nail down Jackies location on the trunk at various times: the seatback, the handholds, and the word on the side of the limousine (Continental). 2023, A&E Television Networks, LLC. Consider the distance between Jackies right hand and the left handhold grasped by Clint Hill. Below is an especially clear copy of Zapruder frame #375. [1] The November 29, 1963 issue of Life published about 30 frames of the Zapruder film in black and white. Zapruder wasn't only a 33 Degree and a Jew. I gotta say, when I line up Gov. OBTW, that's plenty of time for a limo stop. " Jackie recoils, her mouth open in horror, and suddenly she is climbing out of the open- top car, scrambling on the back hood of the limousine, met by Secret Service agent Clint Hill, who pushes her back down into the seat. I asked Mr. Coburn if his company enlarged the Zapruder film for Life magazine in the days following the assassination. It was given to director Howie Samuelsohn by Penn Jones and later aired in syndication to Philadelphia, Detroit, Kansas City, and St. (This has implications for jiggle analysis the correlation of a shot with film blur caused by a photographers startle reflex. "That . For some reason, though, they never discussed their mutual involvement in the events of November 22, 1963. Title 8, Chapter 21, Demonstrative Evidence; Section 214: The principle upon which photographs are most commonly admitted into evidence is the same as that underlying the admission of illustrative drawings, maps, and diagrams. Nicholas Nalli, senior research scientist at IMSG, Inc., created a model of the mechanics of the gunshot wound itself to explain where the bullet may have come from. Part way, I stopped it for about two seconds, then resumed the movement. It confirmed Nallis theoryand shows that its unlikely that the president was shot from the grassy knoll in front of him. Time Inc. wanted to donate the film to the U.S. government. Twice during that interview,he said that the car stopped. What's gone wrong?" . Zapruder, armed with his Super Eight camera, filmed what would be the only movie footage of the assassination. The limo would had to have been stopped as well. One other thing to be aware of is the position of the photographers, relative to each other and to the street. [38] Kodak engineer Ronald Zavada ran experiments with the film Abraham Zapruder used and concluded that the film is authentic. Until a few years ago, the authenticity and reliability of the extant Zapruder film was accepted by almost all JFK assassination researchers, even the severest critics of the Warren Report, myself included. Pleased with the results, they asked for a 35 mm internegative to be made. It can be found in an article by attorney and JFK researcher Carol Hewett that is just stunning, rich in insight and very hard-to-get information. This anomaly begins with a frame with two large black lines across the entire image. JFK is hit in the head before he reaches the car, or so it appears on that badly damaged film. Under those circumstances, those responsible for the editing of the original Zapruder film ( CIA ) would have been forced to retain the headshot frames. Milicent Cranor, a WhoWhatWhy senior editor with a background in forensic medical publishing, has studied the JFK assassination on and off for more than two decades. [15] After studies of that copy were made in January 1964, the Warren Commission judged the quality to be inadequate, and requested the original film. doubts surrounding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy remain unanswered. Even today, the Zapruder film is seen as evidence in countless conspiracy theories about who shot the president. I think I described it in my statement as though someone was shooting a revolver into a hard object it seemed to have some type of an echo. The public's response and outrage to that television showing quickly led to the forming of the Hart-Schweiker investigation, which contributed to the Church Committee Investigation on Intelligence Activities by the United States, and resulted in the House Select Committee on Assassinations investigation. A small number of those witnesses said shooting occurred on Main Street and Houston Street. J.W. [3] CBS News correspondent Dan Rather was the first to report on the footage on national television after seeing it. Oil painting, Wood working, Genealogy, Collecting and cutting semi-precious stones, Collecting fossils and artifacts, and JFKA. The last shot seemed to hit his head and cause a noise at the point of impact which made him fall forward and to his left again. I personally have never seen anybody killed in my life, and to see something like this, shooting a man down like a dog, I just couldn't believe. When the work was complete, Dino Brugioni reviewed the briefing boards and notes with his superior, Arthur Lundahl, whom he had called and requested come to the facility. In the authors' words, "The film, we realize, does not depict an assassination about to commence.

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what happened to the zapruder film